The original 1969 agreement was replaced in 1983 by a new Bonn agreement that included “other pollutants” and oil. It was at this time that the European Union (at the time CEE) became a contracting party; and financial arrangements have been made for the reimbursement of costs by a contracting party in the event of mutual assistance. In 1989, the text of the Bonn Agreement was amended to include aerial surveillance to detect operational and illegal spills, which came into force on 1 April 1994. A central debate in the mid-1990s was the continuation of dismissal offences at sea. It was feared that, despite aerial monitoring of oil spills, no sanctions had been taken against polluters who breached marpol 73/78. Several seminars were held to examine differences of opinion on the acceptability of evidence from aerial surveillance and petroleum fingerprints. The Bonn Agreement (officially the agreement on interim arrangements in Afghanistan until permanent government institutions were restored) was the first set of agreements adopted on 5 December 2001 to restore the State of Afghanistan after the US invasion of Afghanistan in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In the absence of a national government since 1979 in Afghanistan, it was deemed necessary to have a transition period before a permanent government was established. A nationally agreed government would require the convening of at least one jirga de loya; However, in the absence of law and order following the rapid victory of the armed forces of the North American and Afghan alliance, immediate action was taken to prove necessary. Although this is not a comprehensive peace agreement and there have been no significant provisions, as the formal commitments of Afghanistan`s neighbours to respect the country`s neutrality (and to end external support for various military factions), most Afghans felt that the Bonn agreement was the best possible chance for the establishment of peace, security and the protection of human rights in Afghanistan.
With the participation of so many Afghan factions and the promise of political and economic support from the world`s major powers, the agreement has given hope to some of the world`s most oppressed and abused people.