Professor Horst Hippler, former President of the University Rectors` Conference and head of the DEAL negotiating team, commented on the DEAL project: “We are very pleased to take a big step forward with Springer Nature in the vision of the DEAL project. The unit of this transformative open access agreement is the “Proof of Concept” for the DEAL project as a powerful framework for the transition in scientific publishing: it ends hybrid APC payments made by authors alongside library subscription payments; it operates with a reasonable PAR fee allowing institutional costs to gradually shift from the last licence expenditures to publication expenditures during the term of the agreement; it allows for better financial control, as advances decrease every year.  Under the terms of the four-year contract, institutions that register pay a lump sum covering reading and open access to articles in all 34 periodicals as well as access to articles in 21 other Nature Reviews titles. . . .